Category Archives: Battlefield Tours


This week I’ve been reminiscing a little on my trip in September 2015 to several American Civil War battlefields on east coast. Some readers may even recall a series of articles I compiled back then as I travelled from one battlefield to another. My aim was not to post an in-depth record, but rather my thoughts each evening, as I contemplated the day. Given I was visiting battlefields each day even a small delay would mean I would get behind. As a result several battlefields failed to gain a mention at the time. One of those battlefields that failed to be recorded at the time was Fredericksburg.

Fredericksburg holds a fascination for me. In part due to Burnside’s promotion after Antietam and part due to the complexity of the problems associated with such a crossing. Yet despite this I haven’t recreated the battle on the table top, though it continually beckons.

Prior to my visit it had been suggested by a couple of people that there was little to see at Fredericksburg as the field had been built over. To a point they were correct, but from another perspective I feel they were wrong. Indeed, I wish I had allowed more time at Fredericksburg.

My first stop when visiting National Battlefield Park sites is the visitor centres, in part due to a small fee at a number but in edition to collect a copy of the excellent park maps. These maps provide a few key points in what is typically a driving tour and tend from these points it is often worth striking out on foot. In the case of Fredericksburg I had earlier visited the other park office at Chancellorsville – four battlefields are administered by the same area and map. However, with another park office next to the Sunken Road another visit was called for. I’m so pleased I did.

While waiting to ask a question I was rewarded with a very informative explanation of the gentle slope from the Marye’s Heights and the Sunken Road to historic Fredericksburg being delivered to two visiting Americans. The park officer in question was explained how to view the streets leading up towards the Sunken Road and how, using parked cars, you could see even today the swale (or depression) which provided valuable but critical cover for the Union troops. I was impressed! Yet again the park staff are a wonderful source of information.

If you are visiting Fredericksburg there are a couple of things you really must see. Of course you must spend time at the Sunken Road, and consider both the original wall and reconstructed areas. An original section of the wall is shown above and a close up view of Innis House below. From this area you can also view the swale, or depression, that provided critical cover. While in the area take the short stroll to the nearby Confederate artillery positions. A simple map from the park office provides guidance.

After, a visit to Chatham Manor is required. Located across the Rappahannok River, on the Stafford Heights, the building provides good views of Fredericksburg and equally impressive Union siege guns deployed to provide supporting fire for the Union troops crossing the river.

In December 1862 Union artillery was deployed all along the Stafford Heights, but even this section will provide a sample. While at Chatham you will also be rewarded with a visit the the manor and with a reproduction of a pontoon bridge, though reduced in scale somewhat. I understand this was built for the movie “Gods and Generals”.

Below, a period view of a pontoon bridge at Fredericksburg, where General Franklin crossed. All the period photos show a very open battlefield and are ideal for gauging an understanding of how the battlefield today differs from that in 1862.

Having considered the battlefield from the Union perspective I returned to the Confederate lines and traced the Rebel positions from south of Marye’s Heights, via Lee’s Drive to view Lee’s Hill, Howison Hill and south towards Prospect Hill. Unfortunately the trees provide considerable visual obstacles today for viewing the battlefield, however the artillery and slopes ensures the visitor has clarity on the difficulty faced by the Union army in December 1862.

I was particularly surprised by the climb up Telegraph Hill (now called Lee’s Hill) to what was a commanding position and for much of the battle Lee’s Headquarters. Below, a 30-pdr Parrott on Lee’s Hill similar to the one that exploded here.

As we continue towards the Confederate right the ground has generally less height. Eventually we arrive at Prospect Hill which effectively marks the end of the battlefield and was held by Jackson. Prospect Hill is just to the south of Meade’s attack and breakthrough. Hopefully more ground in the area of Meade’s attack, between the Confederate positions and the river, will be added to the battlefield park in the coming years. Certainly I would have valued the opportunity to explore this area in more depth.

Unfortunately for me daylight was almost gone and I had to end my visit here.

If you are interested in reading more on the Fredericksburg Battlefield I encourage you to visit Peter Glyer’s excellent website Mercer Square. Peter’s site provides a range of interesting and very detailed articles on the battlefield. In addition, and in something of a twist Peter was the park volunteer I encountered on my visit to Fredericksburg and who provided such valuable input for my visit. In addition I suggest you visit the Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania site Mysteries & Conundrums.


Kolin Battlefield 

Being in Prague recently I took the opportunity to visit the battlefield of Kolin. As it transpired I was on the battlefield on the 13th of June, just short of the anniversary. Unlike some who have visited this battlefield as part of a tour, I was visiting by myself so ensured I had a reasonable selection of maps. In particular I had “Fredrick the Great A Military Life” by Christopher Duffy and “Kolin 1757” by Simon Millar. For completeness I also took a copy of Frank Chadwick’s Kolin Scenario map designed for use with  Volley & Bayonet. I found Millar’s maps particularly useful on the day.

I approached the battlefield along the the Kaiser Strasse and visible on the right, in a commanding position, was the spire of Krzeczor church and the Austrian monument. The ground sloped upwards from the Kaiser Strasse to the Austrian positions. Turning off the Kaiser Strasse it was a strait forward process to drive into Krzeczor. A short walk then took me to the Austrian monument. It was at this point it became very apparent how significant the slope was. Unfortunately, the picture doesn’t do the justice to this slope. You can however see vehicles on the Kaiser Strasse.

Then above this sits the earthworks and on the earthworks the monument.

Above, looking back towards the village of Krzeczor, distant right, but obscured. Below the monument.

Walking back to Krzeczor even today the church remains a significant building. While today it is little worse for wear it sits in a commanding position and I was struck by its defensible nature, especially considering the stone wall that surrounds it.

Below, a view from the grounds of the church looking towards the Kaiser Strasse. Just visible in the foreground is a portion of the churchyard wall.

The 800 or so Croats had a strong position, reinforced by additional infantry it would have been extremely difficult to secure.

Now, back to the monument. Of particular interest was that beyond the monument the hill flattened effectively creating a plateau. There is a slight rise towards the Krzeczor Hill summit, illustrated in Millar’s book, but it was a minimal slope compared to that running from the Kaiser Strasse to the village of Krzeczor and monument. I’ve tried to illustrate this in the next two photos.

Above, a view on the plateau from the road between the villages of Krzeczor and Bristivi. Careful inspection will show the rear of the Austrian monument, an eagle wings extended, sitting high among the left wooded area. Krzeczor village is on the right obscured. The Kaiser Strasse is completely obscured from view on the plateau.

Now, the Prussians advanced across this ground, having driven the Croats from their positions, crossed the road where I’m standing and engaged Wied’s Austrians in the distance of the photo below. Again there is almost no level change here.

To the east of these photos is the location of the Oak Woods. As Millar details in his book the Oak Wood has gone. However, driving east from Krzeczor village to Radowesnitz village the terrain is very rolling with multiple undulations and extremely limited line of sight. Millar’s map suggests some undulation but it is if anything understated.

A road from Krzeczor village tracks directly from the rear of the village towards the west end of Krzeczor Hill and behind the Austrians line in the photo above. There is a very gentle slope west to the top of Krzeczor Hill, but on reaching the top, today marked by some trees, the ground sloped off quickly to the west.

From here the Przerovsky Hill (right centre) can be clearly rising in the photo below, This hill marks the western end of the Austrian infantry line. Note the road in the left going downhill towards Libodritz.

The ground from Bristivi through Chotzemitz and Brzesau is also on a slope and uphill from the Kaiser Strasse. However Chotzemitz and Brzesau are effectively hidden from the Kaiser Strasse by intervening ground. This is not apparent on any of the maps.

Przerovsky Hill, west of Krzeczor Hill, is a dominating feature. However the road that connects Chotzemitz to Libodritz is itself steep and would have been a considerable obstacle to advance over. On Duffy and Millar’s map the ridge is extended, on Chadwicks interpretation it isn’t, though in my opinion it needs to be. I couldn’t find anywhere to park on the Prussian side so the photo below is taken from an Austrian perspective.

Between the villages of Chotzemitz and Brzesau Millar provides a photo of a small religious shrine, which I have included below as a reference point.

If you look to the right following the road you see Brzesau, pictured below. This is the area that the Prussian 20th, 25th and 40th Regiments would have advanced over.

To their front was the Przerovsky Hill which can be seen below as the wooded high ground today. A portion of the shrine on the right as reference.

Austrian infantry extend the line from the Przerovsky Hill which marked the end of the Austrian infantry line.

I found the battlefield of Kolin very rewarding to visit. It is very much untouched. As a result it is very easy to see the Prussians and Austrians fighting across the fields even today. The visit however highlighted several points I hadn’t fully appreciated.

Firstly, the two hills form a much longer ridge which must have prevented Frederick from observing the Austrian movements. Some maps show this, but the extent was not apparent. If you are modelling the battlefield with a view to refight the battle I think one long ridge is important.

Secondly, the significant plateau near Krzeczor village. Duffy touches on this when he writes: “…they had cleared the village and reached the celebrated Oak Wood behind. After this first success, instead of finding himself master of an empty ridge, Hulsen discovered that he was face to face with the Austrian division of Wied…” It really is a plateau and until you are on it you can’t see what awaits.

Finally, the rolling terrain around Radowesnitz. If using Volley & Bayonet extending the ridge beyond the Oak Wood will break line of site and help model the rolling terrain.

Now, some logistics. If you are considering such a trip I hired a rental car from Prague’s Hlavni Nadrazi train station which allowed relatively straight forward travel to the battlefield thanks to clear instructions from my iPhone, I was travelling by myself. Your navigator may be as good as my phone but without it I wouldn’t attempt the trip. In fact I had more troble getting out of the train station than actually following the instructions on route.

Finally, I would like to acknowledge the useful advice from my good friend Maurizio Bragaglia. Maurizio answered several questions as I tried to determine the best way to get to the battlefield.


I remain behind with my posts but before I get further behind I will post a few photos on Petersburg. I was rather enjoyed following Grant’s Overland Campaign, which started at the Widerness and included battles at Spotsylvania Court House, North Anna and Cold Harbor. I visited three of these four yet have yet to post two photo reports. Instead I’ll skip ahead to Petersburg my most recent battlefield.

You are probably aware of the history of the Overland Campaign, but in brief terms Grant refused to go away and after the Wilderness, ignoring heavy casualties, he kept slowly moving towards Richmond until he was northeast at Cold Harbor. Despite further heavy casualties, with no gain, he then slipped south crossing the James River and came against Richmond from the south, via Petersburg. Pettersburg was the key supply route to Richmond. The campaign to take Petersburg began in June 1864 and ended with Petersburg and Richmond being lost in April 1865. It did not start as formal siege, but a series of battles centred around forts, often called batteries, and entrenchments. Later a formal siege resulted. 

The battlefield park covers a significant area, some 30 miles in length. The park is broken into three parts. The Eastern Front, the Western Front & Five Forks Battlefield. With limited time I only visited the Eastern Front section which is preserved in a single large block of land.

The park visitor centre has a significant display of artillery and howitzer barrels, without carriages, which proved extremely interesting. I for example didn’t realise that the Confederates produced some bronze rifles nor did I know that due to a lack of bronze in 1863 they started making iron 12pdr Napoleons.  

Of course the park focuses on the several forts, including the initial ones along the Dimmock Line such as Battery 5 below.  Each fort has a fascinating story to tell of course. Involving attack, counterattack and in some cases reuse. However, for me the lasting point was the evolution of field defences that had taken place over the Overland Campaign.


Above, a view of Battery 5 from the outside and below one section of the inside.


One of the monsters of Petersburg is the “Dictator” a 13″ sea coast mortar which fired a 225 pound exploding shell over two miles. The mortar below is not the actual Dictator, but rather another 13″ mortar. However, the Dictator was fired from this position during July, August and September 1864. To put the size of this monster in perspective it is slightly higher than me.


At one point in the park a reproduction of a fort is being built. It was rather fascinating and helped place the forts and trenches of the battlefield into a degree of perspective. The reproduction fortification is however the work of one volunteer who works on it as time permits. I had a most interesting talk with him, and he a break from what looked to be very hard work on a hot day.


It seems rain is a constant enemy to the works. 


The volunteer indicated the works deteriorate quickly, with fascines lasting just 12 months. Therefore he is both building and repairing now.  He is obviously taken some liberty with the logs to ensure they last but much of the material is sourced from the surrounding woods, which were not there in 1864.


Back to the tour. Another view of note was the crater, the result of a Union mine. 


This was the scene of horrific action, slaughter and where no quarter was given of African-American troops by Confederates during the southern counterattack. Arguably worse was that, Union white troops attacked African-American Union troops in an effort to ensure they may themselves gain quarter. The photo does not do the crater, in particular its depth or its width, justice.

Of course I’ve only covered a portion of the Petersburg battlefield here. That said, I found the development of trenches and fortifications over the duration of the Overland Campaign fascinating.

Malvern Hill

The final battle of the Seven Days campaign was Malvern Hill. Based on suggestions by others I had heard that the battlefield was generally well preserved, indeed it was. Historically the Confederate troops arrived on the battlefield in what can be described as a less than organised way followed by the attacks being piecemeal. Ironically, so was my arrival on the battlefield. I had a degree of trouble finding the battlefield and then finding the parking area. That said the battlefield was rather rewarding to visit.

As with Gaines’ Mill and other battlefields near Richmond only a portion of the battlefield is protected. However at Malvern Hill a significant proportion is. Further, that protected is in near historical condition.

Above, Confederate artillery looking across to Malvern Hill. The modern West House, built on the original West House on the battlefield in 1862, can be just seen on Malvern Hill. It’s a useful marker. Jackson’s artillery was effectively at 90 degrees left of this house, when viewed from here. This results in the Union gun line turning 90 degrees around the area of the West House. The James River is off, some distance, to the right and obscured.

The Confederate artillery were however deployed piecemeal and suffered to Union counter battery fire.

“Entering the field at the point where our artillery had been posted, I came upon numbers of dead and dying horses, who, with the drivers and gunners, laid in a pile together; their several dismantled guns, their caissons, fired and blown up by the enemy’s balls – all presenting an aspect of desolation and ruin.” John S. Hard, 7th South Carolina Infantry.

I walked from left, through the woods, having started at the remains of the parsonage. In the woods a significant number of Confederate infantry sheltered from the Union artillery. Having walked across behind the Confederate cannon I walked up the the right flank. In this area there was a noticeable, but gentle, slope down from the Confederate guns to a dip that ran across the battlefield where the woods on the left end. From that point the ground rises again to the Union gun line on Malvern Hill.

The photo below is taken around halfway up Malvern Hill around the area of the Slave Cabins which were historically behind me. It marks the forward position of Confederate infantry in their attacks.

It is worth noting that the Confederates were also under bombardment from Union gunboats operating on the James river.

Below, a photo from the Union gun line looking towards the Confederates. This shows the dip on the ground more clearly. The battlefield had both wheat and corn planted in 1862. To the front of the guns is corn. Given the date of the battle the corn would have been reasonably low. It was when I visited in most parts, due to the lack of growth.

Union guns of which there were 30 to 40, deployed across half a mile frontage. One battery, having six 12 pounder Napoleons, (Company A, 5th U.S. artillery) alone fired 1392 rounds of shell and canister.

I always seem to be surprised by a few aspects of each battlefields, Malvern Hill was the short distance between some Union infantry and Confederates. Below, on the right flank of the main Union gun line deployed forward were Union infantry under Couch (left) and Barlow (right). Confederates were around 150 metres away in the woods and Parsonage.

The Parsonage, included here as it looks rather odd, with only the chimneys remaining.

Another very interesting battlefield.

Gaines’ Mill

Due to some technical difficulties I’ve fallen behind with my posts. To keep things fresh I’ll post a short post on the last two battlefields visited today, forming part of the Richmond National Park area, then catchup on yesterday’s battlefields. The Richmond Battlefield Parks are actually a series of battlefields and historical sites in and around Richmond with most being east of Richmond. I’ve decided to visit three main sites in the outer Richmond area. The first I will cover is Gaines’ Mill, from the 1862 Seven Days Campaign.

Gaines’ Mill was one of the early battles of the Seven Days Campaign, fought soon after Lee had taken command. Unfortunately the battlefield park, like many others in the Peninsula Campaign, covers only a portion of the battlefield. Despite the limited area it was a very enjoyable visit.

The battlefield is focuses on the Confederate right flank. One of the more obvious features of the battlefield is the historical Watt House, which isn’t actually open to the public. Unfortunately, the picture below isn’t that great given the lighting on the day.

The house sits behind the Union front line. In front of the house, behind where I’m standing, is Boatswain Swamp and beyond this the Confederate positions. Behind the house is Turkey Hill.

This photo provides greater perspective. Watt Lane is bordered by split rail fencing, in the distance is Watt House. Boatswain Swamp is down the slope on the left of the photo running parallel to the lane. Union troops used the historical fences to create hasty fortifications in the woods to the left.

As you can see Watt House sits on is reasonably flat area but the slope down to Boatswain Swamp is surprisingly steep. The Confederate attacks came across this swamp, which lies in a gully, and up the Union slope eventually exiting the woods on the left.

Interpreting the signs the wooded area that now covers the area of the swamp and hillside I believe the wood is historical, but expanded. With such things interpreting the original terrain verses the current can be confusing. Given the location of Watt House I imagine the woods were “farmed” so thinned and generally open.

Above, in the area of the Union line that ran along and in the woods. The slope runs down to the swamp on the right. The Watt House plateau to the left. John Bell Hood’s Brigade of Texans crossed the swamp a little further from where this photo was taken.

When I visited the swamp was more of a creek, but as I moved further south the creek widened to a narrow but notable swampy area where Longstreet’s troops crossed, shown below.

Slightly further along, still heading south, was the following memorial to the Alabama Brigade of Longstreet’s Division. Again, the lighting was not kind to my photography.

The memorial reads:

“Brigadier General Cadmus M. Wilcox. Wilcox’s Alabama Brigade, Longstreet’s Division, Army of Northern Virginia, CSA. Near here on June 27, 1862, three Confederate brigades under General Cadmus M. Wilcox ascended this hill, broke the Union line and later assisted in capturing a battery of artillery. Wilcox’s own Alabama Brigade spearheaded the charge. Losing nearly 600 men killed and wounded of the 1850 soldiers in the four regiments.”

Finally, Union artillery, which were able to fire through gaps in the trees at Confederates across the swamp. These guns represent the 5th Massachusetts Battery that engaged Confederates breaking through, before retiring themselves.

“They rushed through the woods over the brook, now filled with dead bodies, closing their ranks as fast as our fire mowed them down…The woods were full of smoke, and the bullets buzzed round our heads like a swarm of angry bumblebees…My horse had a bullet in its flank and one sergeant’s horse lay dead on the ground.” Lt. Charles A. Phillips 5th Massachusetts Battery.

A small battlefield park, but one that highlighted some very interesting aspects of this battle.