I remain behind with my posts but before I get further behind I will post a few photos on Petersburg. I was rather enjoyed following Grant’s Overland Campaign, which started at the Widerness and included battles at Spotsylvania Court House, North Anna and Cold Harbor. I visited three of these four yet have yet to post two photo reports. Instead I’ll skip ahead to Petersburg my most recent battlefield.
You are probably aware of the history of the Overland Campaign, but in brief terms Grant refused to go away and after the Wilderness, ignoring heavy casualties, he kept slowly moving towards Richmond until he was northeast at Cold Harbor. Despite further heavy casualties, with no gain, he then slipped south crossing the James River and came against Richmond from the south, via Petersburg. Pettersburg was the key supply route to Richmond. The campaign to take Petersburg began in June 1864 and ended with Petersburg and Richmond being lost in April 1865. It did not start as formal siege, but a series of battles centred around forts, often called batteries, and entrenchments. Later a formal siege resulted.
The battlefield park covers a significant area, some 30 miles in length. The park is broken into three parts. The Eastern Front, the Western Front & Five Forks Battlefield. With limited time I only visited the Eastern Front section which is preserved in a single large block of land.
The park visitor centre has a significant display of artillery and howitzer barrels, without carriages, which proved extremely interesting. I for example didn’t realise that the Confederates produced some bronze rifles nor did I know that due to a lack of bronze in 1863 they started making iron 12pdr Napoleons.
Of course the park focuses on the several forts, including the initial ones along the Dimmock Line such as Battery 5 below. Each fort has a fascinating story to tell of course. Involving attack, counterattack and in some cases reuse. However, for me the lasting point was the evolution of field defences that had taken place over the Overland Campaign.
Above, a view of Battery 5 from the outside and below one section of the inside.
One of the monsters of Petersburg is the “Dictator” a 13″ sea coast mortar which fired a 225 pound exploding shell over two miles. The mortar below is not the actual Dictator, but rather another 13″ mortar. However, the Dictator was fired from this position during July, August and September 1864. To put the size of this monster in perspective it is slightly higher than me.
At one point in the park a reproduction of a fort is being built. It was rather fascinating and helped place the forts and trenches of the battlefield into a degree of perspective. The reproduction fortification is however the work of one volunteer who works on it as time permits. I had a most interesting talk with him, and he a break from what looked to be very hard work on a hot day.
It seems rain is a constant enemy to the works.
The volunteer indicated the works deteriorate quickly, with fascines lasting just 12 months. Therefore he is both building and repairing now. He is obviously taken some liberty with the logs to ensure they last but much of the material is sourced from the surrounding woods, which were not there in 1864.
Back to the tour. Another view of note was the crater, the result of a Union mine.
This was the scene of horrific action, slaughter and where no quarter was given of African-American troops by Confederates during the southern counterattack. Arguably worse was that, Union white troops attacked African-American Union troops in an effort to ensure they may themselves gain quarter. The photo does not do the crater, in particular its depth or its width, justice.
Of course I’ve only covered a portion of the Petersburg battlefield here. That said, I found the development of trenches and fortifications over the duration of the Overland Campaign fascinating.